Critical raw materials

Close

HREEs

LREEs

Germanium

Borate

Strontium

Natural Graphite

Bauxite

Indium

Lithium

Coking coal

Flourspar

Baryte

Gallium

Hafnium

Tantalum

Silicon

Phosphate rock

Natural rubber

Titanium

Vanadium

Antimony

Bismuth

Berylium

PGMs

Cobalt

Tungsten

Scandium

Phosphorous

Niobium

Magnesium

Supply risk

Economic importance

Research

Practice

Exhibitions

EURO⁠—VISION is an art-led enquiry by

FRAUD (Audrey Samson & Francisco Gallardo) is a London-based artist/architect duo which develops modes of art-led enquiry that …

FRAUD
into the extractive gaze of European institutions and policies, which focuses on the modalities in which resource management shapes and gives corporeality to geopolitics.

The relationship between international relations, trade, economic policy and border security come into focus through the lens of
Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) are raw materials deemed economically and strategically important for the economy of the European Union (or any country with a similar policy to this effect), and have a high-risk associated with their supply. Criticality is not derived from scarcity, but rather through the covalence between significant economic importance, high-supply risk and the lack of lack of feasible substitutes.
Critical Raw Materials
(CRMs).

In 2008, the 🇪🇺 European Commission 🇪🇺 adopted the
Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) are raw materials deemed economically and strategically important for the economy of the European Union (or any country with a similar policy to this effect), and have a high-risk associated with their supply. Criticality is not derived from scarcity, but rather through the covalence between significant economic importance, high-supply risk and the lack of lack of feasible substitutes.
Critical Raw Materials
Initiative, which defined a strategy for accessing resources viewed as imperative to the EU’s subsistence. The criticality of resources is measured according to supply risk and economic importance. Policies are drawn up to ensure the continued availability of materials deemed critical. Such policies have led to agreements guiding the biological and geological exhaustion of the Global South. The current list, revised in 2020, includes 30 materials, including Silica, Cobalt Natural Rubber, Phosphate rock, and the newly added Lithium and Titanium.

How can we understand extraction beyond the removal and displacement of minerals – to encompass policies, international treaties and regulations that impose controversial forms of stewardship of natural resources on communities?

EURO—VISION focuses on the inscriptive operations of initiatives such as the establishment of
Free Trade Zones, Special Economic Zones, Foreign Trade Zones, Export Oriented zones, or just Free Zones are one of the many dirty secrets of modernity.1 They are enclaves carved out of national territories and granted administrative and/or economic policies found nowhere else in national territories. Used as a weapon to de-industrialise occupied economies, Free Ports …
Free Trade Zones
📦 FTZs 📦, fisheries partnerships agreements 📄 FPAs📄, and de-risking investment tools like
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been described by developmental economists as budgetary time bombs.1 Technically, they are long-term contractual arrangements whereby institutional investors and asset managers agree to finance and manage certain public services such as hospitals, highways, energy production plants, housing, or the supply of water and sewage - in …
Public-Private Partnerships
🔖 PPPs 🔖.

FRAUD (Audrey Samson & Francisco Gallardo) is a London-based artist/architect duo which develops modes of art-led enquiry that …

FRAUD
proposes to consider issues through the lens of these materials, as well as to incorporate a wider set of ‘materials’, such as labour and fish(eries). We argue that the latter are managed as resources to be extracted, and that understanding them as critical raw materials as defined by governmental bodies helps to understand how their plunder is mobilised and institutionalised. More importantly, this framework enables us to look beyond these practices to the possibility of thinking and doing otherwise. A number of academics, practitioners, economists, lawyers, activists and journalists have participated in the making of EURO⁠—VISION. Their voices, insights and recommendations are included in various forms. Some of these are interviews, available to download in PDF format, others constitute the body of a series of podcasts. The body of work also includes a number artworks and exhibitions that can be viewed through the meta navigation of this site.

How does this website work?

This site presents a research-led approach to navigation. Intended as a growing resource and archive, the various strands of research that have informed each project build paths of exploration. The structure is based on the dendrogram, the most common diagram used to represent machine learning processes, as well as web platform structures. It is also used by the European Union to visualise resource and material scarcity and flow, such as in the Raw Materials Information System, particularly the Raw Materials Scoreboard.

The dendrogram is based on the visual figure of a decision tree, a structure that suggests hierarchical readability. It exemplifies interpretability. As Adrian MacKenzie notes: "the decision tree, despite its evident visual order, does not say anything about how that order was obtained" (2015, 437). It presents the data in a geometrical space that can be cut into segments. Here however, what can be derived from following the decision tree's path, is a set of references and resources that open up a discussion, rather than providing an answer. The path is non-linear, and presents an interpretation, rather than an absolute.

EURion

The pointer is based on the EURion pattern, which is normally used to prevent counterfeiting. Most copiers are equipped with detection software to block the reproduction of a document which contains it. EURion appears on banknotes such as the EURO, the Moroccan Dirham and the British Pound, and its development and functioning are shrouded in secrecy. The pattern and detection algorithm was allegedly patented by Omron Corporation in 1995. The constellation also resembles the Berlaymont’s building plan in Brussels which houses the headquarters of the European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union. The term, coined by security researcher Markus Kuhn, is a portmanteau of EUR and the Orion constellation.

Acknowledgements

Midsummer Mast and Fields of May are commissioned by Contemporary Art Archipelago as part of Spectres in Change project, funded by Kone Foundation.

Partnerships was produced as part of the 5th Istanbul Design Biennial — Empathy Revisited: Designs for more than one, organised by the Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts, and curated by: Mariana Pestana, Sumitra Upham and Billie Muraben.

Jable Pardo - Viele Grüße aus Canaria has received the generous support of the Hochschule für Bildende Künste Braunschweig (HBK) BS Projects programme and from the Canada Art Council.

Euro-vision, or the Making of the Automated Gaze was a collaboration between King's College London's Department of Digital Humanities and artist duo

FRAUD (Audrey Samson & Francisco Gallardo) is a London-based artist/architect duo which develops modes of art-led enquiry that …

FRAUD
, brokered and supported by the Cultural Institute at King’s in partnership with Somerset House Studios.


The EURO—VISION public programme was commissioned by:

RADAR, Loughborough University's commissioning and research programme, as part of their 'Risk Related' programme of commissions.

Arts Catalyst, a nonprofit contemporary arts organisation that commissions and produces transdisciplinary art and research. EURO—VISION is part of their Extractable Matters programme.


EURO—VISION is supported by:

Arts Council England

Acción Cultural Española (AC/E) through the Programme for the Internationalisation of Spanish Culture (PICE), in the framework of the Mobility grants.

We acknowledge the support of the Canada Council for the Arts.

Data Privacy

Legal Notice

1. Introduction

1.1 This disclaimer shall govern your use of our website.
1.2 By using our website, you accept this disclaimer in full; accordingly, if you disagree with this disclaimer or any part of this disclaimer, you must not use our website.
1.3 Our website uses cookies; by using our website or agreeing to this disclaimer, you consent to our use of cookies in accordance with the terms of our privacy and cookies policy.

2. Credit

2.1 This document was created using a template from SEQ Legal.

3. Copyright notice

3.1 Copyright (c) 2021 L(" O ")Iiil .. ': ' Ltd
3.2 Subject to the express provisions of this disclaimer:
✏️ (a) unless stated otherwise we, together with our licensors, own and control all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in our website and the material on our website; and
✏️ (b) all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in our website and the material on our website are reserved.

4. Licence to use website

4.1 You may:
✏️ (a) view pages from our website in a web browser;
✏️ (b) download pages from our website for caching in a web browser; and
✏️ (c) print pages from our website, subject to the other provisions of this disclaimer.
4.2 Except as expressly permitted by Section 4.1 or the other provisions of this disclaimer, you must not download any material from our website or save any such material to your computer.
4.3 You may only use our website for your own personal and academic purposes, and you must not use our website for any other purposes.
4.4 Unless you own or control the relevant rights in the material, without our expressed consent you must not:
✏️ (a) republish material from our website (including republication on another website);
✏️ (b) sell, rent or sub-license material from our website;
✏️ (c) show any material from our website in public;
✏️ (d) exploit material from our website for a commercial purpose; or
✏️ (e) redistribute material from our website.
4.5 We reserve the right to restrict access to areas of our website, or indeed our whole website, at our discretion; you must not circumvent or bypass, or attempt to circumvent or bypass, any access restriction measures on our website.

5. Acceptable use

5.1 You must not:
✏️ (a) use our website in any way or take any action that causes, or may cause, damage to the website or impairment of the performance, availability or accessibility of the website;
✏️ (b) use our website in any way that is unlawful, illegal, fraudulent or harmful, or in connection with any unlawful, illegal, fraudulent or harmful purpose or activity;
✏️ (c) use our website to copy, store, host, transmit, send, use, publish or distribute any material which consists of (or is linked to) any spyware, computer virus, Trojan horse, worm, keystroke logger, rootkit or other malicious computer software;
✏️ (d) conduct any systematic or automated data collection activities (including without limitation scraping, data mining, data extraction and data harvesting) on or in relation to our website without our express written consent;
✏️ (e) access or otherwise interact with our website using any robot, spider or other automated means, except for the purpose of search engine indexing;
✏️ (f) violate the directives set out in the robots.txt file for our website]; or
✏️ (g) use data collected from our website for any direct marketing activity (including without limitation email marketing, SMS marketing, telemarketing and direct mailing).
5.2 You must not use data collected from our website to contact individuals, companies or other persons or entities.
5.3 You must ensure that all the information you supply to us through our website, or in relation to our website, is true, accurate, current, complete and non-misleading.

6. Limited warranties

6.1 We do not warrant or represent:
✏️ (a) the completeness or accuracy of the information published on our website;
✏️ (b) that the material on the website is up to date; or
✏️ (c) that the website or any service on the website will remain available.
6.2 We reserve the right to discontinue or alter any or all of our website services, and to stop publishing our website, at any time in our sole discretion without notice or explanation; and save to the extent expressly provided otherwise in this disclaimer, you will not be entitled to any compensation or other payment upon the discontinuance or alteration of any website services, or if we stop publishing the website.
6.3 To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law and subject to Section 7.1, we exclude all representations and warranties relating to the subject matter of this disclaimer, our website and the use of our website.

7. Limitations and exclusions of liability

7.1 Nothing in this disclaimer will:
✏️ (a) limit or exclude any liability for death or personal injury resulting from negligence;
✏️ (b) limit or exclude any liability for fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation;
✏️ (c) limit any liabilities in any way that is not permitted under applicable law; or
✏️ (d) exclude any liabilities that may not be excluded under applicable law.
7.2 The limitations and exclusions of liability set out in this Section 7 and elsewhere in this disclaimer:
✏️ (a) are subject to Section 7.1; and
✏️ (b) govern all liabilities arising under this disclaimer or relating to the subject matter of this disclaimer, including liabilities arising in contract, in tort (including negligence) and for breach of statutory duty, except to the extent expressly provided otherwise in this disclaimer.
7.3 To the extent that our website and the information and services on our website are provided free of charge, we will not be liable for any loss or damage of any nature.
7.4 We will not be liable to you in respect of any losses arising out of any event or events beyond our reasonable control.
7.5 We will not be liable to you in respect of any business losses, including (without limitation) loss of or damage to profits, income, revenue, use, production, anticipated savings, business, contracts, commercial opportunities or goodwill.
7.6 We will not be liable to you in respect of any loss or corruption of any data, database or software.
7.7 We will not be liable to you in respect of any special, indirect or consequential loss or damage.
7.8 You accept that we have an interest in limiting the personal liability of our officers and employees and, having regard to that interest, you acknowledge that we are a limited liability entity; you agree that you will not bring any claim personally against our officers or employees in respect of any losses you suffer in connection with the website or this disclaimer (this will not, of course, limit or exclude the liability of the limited liability entity itself for the acts and omissions of our officers and employees).

8. Variation

8.1 We may revise this disclaimer from time to time.
8.2 The revised disclaimer shall apply to the use of our website from the time of publication of the revised disclaimer on the website.

9. Severability

9.1 If a provision of this disclaimer is determined by any court or other competent authority to be unlawful and/or unenforceable, the other provisions will continue in effect.
9.2 If any unlawful and/or unenforceable provision of this disclaimer would be lawful or enforceable if part of it were deleted, that part will be deemed to be deleted, and the rest of the provision will continue in effect.

10. Law and jurisdiction

10.1 This disclaimer shall be governed by and construed in accordance with English law.
10.2 Any disputes relating to this disclaimer shall be subject to the exclusive OR non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England & Wales.

11. Our details

11.1 This website is owned and operated by FRAUD trading on behalf of L(" O ")Iiil .. ': ' Ltd, and designed by the galaxical 🙌 Liebermann Kiepe Reddemann 🙌
11.2 We are registered in England and Wales in the Companies House as INCORPORATED PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY under registration number 314 4837 09 🗂 and our registered office can be found below.
11.3 Our principal place of business is at

Studio 203, 276 Oak Square
ACME Studios
London
United Kingdom
SW9 9AW

🛰️ 🛰️ 🛰️
🚢🛳️⛴️🛥️🚤🚢🛳️⛴️🛥️🚤🚢🛳️⛴️
🎣 🎣 🎣 🎣 🎣
🐋🦑🐟🐙🐬🦐🐟🦞🐠🦑🐡🦈🦀
🪨 🪨 🪨 🪨 🪨 🪨 🪨 🪨 🪨 🪨 🪨

11.4 You can contact us:
📮 (a) by post, to the postal address given above;
☎️ (b) by telephone, on ➕4️⃣4️⃣ [0️⃣]7️⃣7️⃣5️⃣0️⃣6️⃣3️⃣8️⃣8️⃣2️⃣4️⃣; or
📨 (c) by email, using else [at] fraud [dot] la].
󠀢

Data Privacy

March 2021

Our contact details:
FRAUD, trading on behalf of L(" O ")Iiil .. ': '* Ltd
🏚 276 Oak Square, ACME Studio 203
London
United Kingdom
SW9 9AW

📧 else [AT] fraud [dot] la
☎️ ➕4️⃣4️⃣ [0️⃣]7️⃣7️⃣5️⃣0️⃣6️⃣3️⃣8️⃣8️⃣2️⃣4️⃣

The type of personal information we collect

We currently collect and process the following information:
🦄 Nada de nada, ☂️ Nothing at all, 🗝 Rien de rien, 🖊 Gar nichts 🧧 沒有收集任何數據

Your data protection rights FYI

Under UK (and EU) data protection law, you have rights including:

Your right of access 📝 You have the right to ask for copies of your personal information.

Your right to rectification 📝 You have the right to ask to rectify personal information you think is inaccurate. You also have the right to ask to complete information you think is incomplete.

Your right to erasure 📝 You have the right to ask to erase your personal information in certain circumstances.

Your right to restriction of processing 📝 You have the right to ask to restrict the processing of your personal information in certain circumstances.

Your right to object to processing 📝 You have the right to object to the processing of your personal information in certain circumstances.

Your right to data portability 📝 You have the right to ask that websites transfer the personal information you gave us to another organisation, or to you, in certain circumstances.

You are not required to pay any charge for exercising your rights. If you make a request, any website (🇪🇺 or 🇬🇧) has one month to respond to you.

Please contact us at our info above if you wish to make a request (please bear in mind that there is nothing to request as we do not collect any information).

How to complain

If you have any concerns about our non-use of your personal information, you can make a complaint to us.

You can also complain to the ICO if you are unhappy with how we have not used your data.

The ICO’s address:
Information Commissioner’s Office
Wycliffe House
Water Lane
Wilmslow
Cheshire
SK9 5AF

Helpline number: 0303 123 1113
ICO website: https://www.ico.org.uk